Languages & Linguistics

The Maranao language is an Austronesian language spoken by approximately 780,000 people. The Maranao people, the primary speakers of the language, live in the Philippines within the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur, as well as in Sabah, Malaysia. Maranao (also called Mëranaw and Maranaoan) is taught in primary schools in the Lanao provinces and is used conversationally in areas where speakers reside.

The Icelandic language (íslenska) is a Germanic language spoken mainly in Iceland. There are approximately 334,400 speakers; 320,000 live in Iceland itself, about 8,000 live in Denmark, 5,000 in the United States, and 1,400 in Canada. The language isn't necessarily regulated in any sense; the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies serves an advisory role in preserving Icelandic manuscripts and the Icelandic Language Council advises the government on language policy.

The Neapolitan language, also known as napulitano is a Romance language spoken by approximately 5.7 million people. Mainly, Neapolitan is spaken in and around Naples, but is widespread throughout southern Italy. The name for the Neapolitan language doesn't come from the city of Naples, but instead comes from the Kingdom of Naples which ruled over much of the area where the language is found today.

The Estonian language is a member of the Finnic language family and is spoken by approximately 1.1 million people. Of these, about 922,000 live in Estonia. Estonian has official status in Estonia and the European Union and is regulated by the Institute of the Estonian Language. Estonian is related to Finnish, Karelian, Hungarian, and a handful of other languages as part of a family that is no Indo-European in origin.

The Sardinian language (also known as sardu, lingua sarda, and limba sarda) is a Romance language spoken by approximately 1 million people. As the name implies, Sardinian is primarily spoken on the island of Sardinia. Since 1997, the Sardinian language has been recognized by local and national laws and since 1999 has been protected as a "historical language minority" by Italy.

The Votic language is a member of the Finnic language family and is spoken by approximately 20 people. Votic is the language of the Votes, a population living in Ingria (a geographical area along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland). The Votes are one of the oldest known ethnic groups in Ingria, but are close to extinction with just a handful of people living in Russia and Estonia.

The Mòcheno language is a Germanic language spoken by approximately 1,900 people in northeastern Italy. Census data shows that most Mòcheno speakers live in a handful of towns in the Mocheni Valley in Trentino. The Mòcheno language, also known as Bersntolerish and bersntoler Sproch is closely related to Bavarian and Cimbrian.

The Cimbrian language is a Germanic language related to Bavarian. Some linguists feel that Cimbrian is descended from a Southern Bavarian dialect while others feel it has a more Lombardic origin. Additionally, the Cimbrian language has a strong relationship to Mòcheno. Cimbrian, also known as Zimbrisch or Tzimbrisch, is spoken by approximately 2,220 people in northeastern Italy.

The Sicilian language is a Romance language spoken on Sicily and surrounding islands, and in some areas of the Italian peninsula. Sicilian, also known as Siculu or Calabro-Sicilian, has about 4 and a half million speakers. There is some debate whether or not the Sicilian language is distinct enough from Italian to be considered a separate language, but Ethnologue and UNESCO maintain that it is. Research shows that there may be as many as eleven regional dialects of Sicilian. Dr.

The Zeelandic language is a Low Franconian language spoken by approximately 220,000 people. Most speakers reside in the Dutch province of Zeeland and on the island of Goeree-Overflakkee. Some classifications consider the Zeelandic language to be a Dutch dialect, but there are enough distinct characteristics to warrant its classification as an independent language.

The Limburgish language is a variety of dialects spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions near the Dutch-Belgian-German border. The group of dialects is distinct enough to be classified as an independent language. Limburgish (also known as Limburgian or Limburgic) shares many characteristics with Dutch and German, and is sometimes considered a variant of these languages. Some speakers also combine Dutch words, grammar, and pronunciation with Limburgish which can make full classification a challenge.

The Corsican language is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica. Corsican is a recognized minority language on the island. Corsica stands out as being one of the only governments under French jurisdiction to grant any official status to a language other than French. The language is spoken by about 35% of Corsican residents, or approximately 402,000 people. According to UNESCO, the Corsican language is on the verge of becoming extinct.


The Maori language is a member of the Polynesian language family and is native to the indigenous population of New Zealand. Census data estimates that there are approximately 30,000 native speakers with about 150,000 being conversationally fluent in the language. The Maori language is one of New Zealand's official languages and is closely related to Tahitian and Tuamotuan. The English word for Maori comes from the Maori language itself, where it's spelled "Māori".

The Galician language is a member of the Galician-Portuguese group of languages. This group is a subset of Romance languages spoken primarily in and around Spain and Portugal. Galician, also known as galego, is spoken by approximately 2.4 million people. A majority of Galician speakers live in Galicia, an autonomous community in northwestern Spain where it's recognized as an official language alongside Spanish.

The Finnish language is a member of the Finnic language family, a subset of Uralic languages. It's spoken by approximately 5.4 million people. Finnish is also known as suomi and suomen kieli and is one of the two official languages of Finland (Swedish being the other). The Finnish language is also an official minority language in Sweden, Norway, and Karelia (a federal subject of Russia).

The Occitan language is a member of the Romance family of languages. There are an estimated 1.5 million speakers. The language has official status in Catalonia, a province in Span, and has been a recognized minority language in Italy since 1999.

Known as lenga d'òc by its native speakers, the Occitan language is spoken primarily in southern France, the Occitan Valleys in Italy, Monaco, and Spain. Outside of this group of areas, collectively referred to as "Occitania", the language is spoken in Guardia Piemontese in Italy.

The Picard language is a member of the Romance language family and is closely related to French. It's spoken by approximately 700,000 people in northern France and parts of Belgium. In 1990, the French community in Belgium recognized Picard as a regional language, though the French government refuses to do so under its policy of maintaining linguistic unity. The Picard language is known by different names.

The Catalan language is a member of the Romance family and is the official language of Andorra. The language is also the co-official language in the Spanish communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community. Speakers reside in various places such as Sardinia, Aragon, Murcia, and southern France. The Valencians often argue that theirs is a separate language, but most linguists view it as a dialect of Catalan.

The Russian Language is a member of the Slavic language family. It is closely related to Ukrainian and Belarusian and is widely spoken in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. There are approximately 144 million native speakers and is the 4th largest language in terms of total speakers. Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.


Out of all the European languages, the Russian language is the most geographically distributed; speakers inhabit the entire width of Eurasia.


The French language is a member of the Romance family and is spoken by approximately 338 million people. Under the French constitution, the French language has held official status since 1992, however the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts made it the official language of legal documents in 1593. The French government requires French to be used in legal contracts, public educations, and official government publications.